audio example by a male speaker
audio example by a female speaker
the above transcription of астма is a detailed (narrow) transcription according to the rules of the International Phonetic Association; you can find a description of each symbol by clicking the phoneme buttons in the secction below.
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An example use of астма in a speech by a native speaker of standard russian:
“… бронхиальная астма и гипер …”
the word астма occurs in russian on average 1.3 times per one million words; this frequency warrants it to be in the study list for C2+ level of language mastery according to CEFR, the Common European Framework of Reference.