audio example by a male speaker
audio example by a female speaker
the above transcription of upstream is a detailed (narrow) transcription according to the rules of the International Phonetic Association; you can find a description of each symbol by clicking the phoneme buttons in the secction below.
press buttons with phonetic symbols to learn how to precisely pronounce each sound of upstream
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An example use of upstream in a speech by a native speaker of british english:
“… binds to the DNA upstream of promoter …”
Upstream means in the direction of the source of a river or stream.
the word upstream occurs in english on average 4.2 times per one million words; this frequency warrants it to be in the study list for C2 level of language mastery according to CEFR, the Common European Framework of Reference.
it is hard to perfectly classify words into specific topics since each word can have many context of its use, but our machine-learning models believe that upstream can be often used in the following areas:
1) people, society, and culture;
2) transport and travel;