audio example by a male speaker
audio example by a female speaker
the above transcription of substitution is a detailed (narrow) transcription according to the rules of the International Phonetic Association; you can find a description of each symbol by clicking the phoneme buttons in the secction below.
press buttons with phonetic symbols to learn how to precisely pronounce each sound of substitution
press the "test" button to check how closely you can replicate the pitch of a native speaker in your pronunciation of substitution
An example use of substitution in a speech by a native speaker of american english:
“… here has involved the substitution the …”
the word substitution occurs in english on average 1.7 times per one million words; this frequency warrants it to be in the study list for C2+ level of language mastery according to CEFR, the Common European Framework of Reference.
it is hard to perfectly classify words into specific topics since each word can have many context of its use, but our machine-learning models believe that substitution can be often used in the following areas:
1) business and work;
2) communication, information, and media;