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audio example by a female speaker
the above transcription of former is a detailed (narrow) transcription according to the rules of the International Phonetic Association; you can find a description of each symbol by clicking the phoneme buttons in the secction below.
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An example use of former in a speech by a native speaker of american english:
“… the political system and former US …”
Former means previous in time.
the word former occurs in english on average 96.4 times per one million words; this frequency warrants it to be in the study list for A2 level of language mastery according to CEFR, the Common European Framework of Reference.
it is hard to perfectly classify words into specific topics since each word can have many context of its use, but our machine-learning models believe that former can be often used in the following areas:
1) communication, information, and media;
2) people, society, and culture;